By William S. Alek

UPDATED: May 6, 2007


"... In 1958, Edwin V. Gray, Sr. discovered that the discharge of a high voltage capacitor could be shocked into releasing a huge, radiant, electrostatic burst. This energy spike was produced by his circuitry and captured in a special device Mr. Gray called his "conversion element switching tube." The non-shocking, cold form of energy that came out of this "conversion tube" powered all of his demonstrations, appliances, and motors, as well as recharged his batteries. Mr. Gray referred to this process as "splitting the positive." During the 1970's, based on this discovery, Mr. Gray developed an 80 hp electric automobile engine that kept its batteries charged continuously. Hundreds of people witnessed dozens of demonstrations that Mr. Gray gave in his laboratory. His story is well documented in the following materials. ...", see E. V Gray website.

Fig. 1 and 2 show Edwin Gray giving public demonstrations of his motor. Fig. 2 (left) shows a very interesting automotive application.

Figure 1. E. V. Gray giving a presentation in 1977.


Figure 2. Left photo shows the Gray Motor for use in a car and the right photo shows Gray and an associate working on a Tesla coil.

What was the source of Gray's excess electrical energy in his devices? That is the proverbial $64,000 question? Lets explore his patent by clicking on each page below:

Figure 3. E. V. Gray's patent 4,661,747 annotated.

Based upon my own research into spark gaps, I highlighted what I think are very important points above that offer evidence of excess electrical energy produced in Gray's devices. Shown above, the subsystem, which was invented by Gray, creates these quasiparticles in a device he called an "electrical conversion switching element tube" (item 14). From what I gathered about his patent, Gray acknowledges the increase in excess energy, but he himself isn't certain as to its origin. From his perspective, the proper combination of components within the "electrical conversion switching element tube" makes it work. So, what is this "critical component" that makes the Gray device produce excess energy? Well, according to my research and experimental evidence with Spark Gaps, the excess energy can only come from item 30 in his patent. Gray refers to this component as a resistive device and later refers to it as a variable resistor. The electrical schematic on the Abstract page and Sheet 1 of 2 both show the component as a variable resistor. The diagram on Sheet 2 of 2 shows this "resistor element" (item 30) as a cylinder of material. He doesn't specifically mention what its made of, but some power resistors of the day used Carbon. A short "round" of Carbon Graphite would suffice in this case.

In early 2006, I conducted a series of experiments to prove to myself that excess energy was occurring in spark gaps using Carbon:

As shown in Fig. 4, I tested a variety of spark gaps.

Figure 4. The Perreault Valve modeled as a POSITIVE non-linear resistor.

I observed using Thoriated Tungsten and Steel, the spark gap equivalent series resistance R > 0 ohms. In other words, the spark gap had POSITIVE resistance, as expected. However, shown in Fig. 5,

Figure 5. The Carbon Arc modeled as a NEGATIVE non-linear resistor.

Using Thoriated Tungsten and Carbon Graphite, the spark gap equivalent series resistance R < 0 ohms. The effect showed NEGATIVE resistance! With the introduction of Carbon Graphite in the circuit, excess electrical electrical was being produced. Based upon some latest mainstream research using Carbon Graphene, the lattice nature of this material acted as a "mini" particle accelerator. Electrons under this configuration literally go "ballistic". The nature of the electron is changed into what is called a Dirac Quasiparticle. I strongly suspect this is what Nikola Tesla observed as Radiant Energy in his experiments, and also E. V. Gray observed in his experiments.