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Science 22 October 2004:
Vol. 306. no. 5696, pp. 666 - 669
DOI: 10.1126/science.1102896


Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films

K. S. Novoselov,1 A. K. Geim,1* S. V. Morozov,2 D. Jiang,1 Y. Zhang,1 S. V. Dubonos,2 I. V. Grigorieva,1 A. A. Firsov2

We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons and holes in concentrations up to 1013 per square centimeter and with room-temperature mobilities of ~10,000 square centimeters per volt-second can be induced by applying gate voltage.

1 Department of Physics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.
2 Institute for Microelectronics Technology, 142432 Chernogolovka, Russia.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: geim{at}

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